Enteroviruses consist of Poliovirus, Coxsakievirus, Echovirus, and numbered Enterovirus. Enteroviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses. Enteroviruses can cause a wide spectrum of diseases in humans. All enteroviruses are transmitted by the fecal-oral route, but clinical outcomes may go beyond gastroenteritis, as some viruses travel from the intestinal tract to other organs. Poliovirus usually infects their host by attacking the central nervous system and cause paralysis in victims (poliomyelitis). Coxsackievirus has been associated with not only respiratory system infections and gastroenteritis but also insulin-dependent diabetes and heart diseases, such as myocarditis and pericarditis. Echovirus is generally less infectious than other enteroviruses and are usually associated with the common cold and respiratory diseases. The numbered enteroviruses (Enterovirus types 68 to 71) have not been studied extensively but have been isolated from patients with bronchiolitis, conjunctivitis, meningitis, and paralysis resembling poliomyelitis.
Enterovirus MonlabTest® provides a rapid detection of Enteroviruses directly from the fecal samples.