Clinical syndromes in humans caused by infection with Salmonella enterica are divided into typhoid fever, caused by S. enterica serovars typhi and paratyphi, and a range of clinical syndromes, including diarrhoeal disease, caused by the non-typhoid salmonellae (NTS) of which there are around 2,500 serovars. Typhoid fever is a humanrestricted and highly adapted invasive systemic disease of adults and children that shows little association with immunosuppression. In contrast, NTS have a broad vertebrate host range and epidemiology that often involves food animals, at least in industrialised countries where it usually presents as gastroenteritis. Severe, invasive disease due to NTS is usually associated with the immunocompromised state common in HIV-infected adults. Invasive NTS disease is also common in young African children with co-morbidities such as severe anaemia, malnutrition and HIV infection.
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